Standard antiretroviral therapy (ART) consists of the combination of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs to maximally suppress the HIV virus and stop the progression of HIV disease. ART also prevents onward transmission of HIV. Huge reductions have been seen in rates of death and infections when use is made of a potent ARV regimen, particularly in early stages of the disease. WHO recommends ART for all people with HIV as soon as possible after diagnosis without any restrictions of CD4 counts. It also recommends offer of pre-exposure prophylaxis to people at substantial risk of HIV infection as an additional prevention choice as part of comprehensive prevention. Countries are now following to adapt and implement these recommendations within own epidemiological settings.